అమెరికా గుప్పెట్లో ప్రపంచ ఆర్ధిక వ్యవస్థ

డాలర్ విలువ రోజు రోజుకు పెరగడం తో అగ్ర రాజ్యం అయిన అమెరికా పెద్దన్న గా ప్రపంచ ఆర్ధిక వ్యవస్థను పరోక్షం గా శాసిస్తోంది. ట్రంప్ ప్రభుత్వం ఇరాన్, రష్యాలతో కరెన్సీ లావా దేవీలు నిలిపివేయడం, చైనా, కెనడా, ఐరోపా సమాఖ్య దేశాల ఎగుమతులపై సుంకాలు భారీగా పెంచడం తో డాలర్ మారకం విలువకు రెక్కలు వచ్చాయి. భద్రత, ఎక్కువ రాబడుల కోసం స్వదెశీ, విదేశీ పొదుపు మొత్తాలు అమెరికాకు పోటెత్తడం తో అంతర్జాతీయ మార్కెట్ ను డాలర్ శాసిస్తోంది. అమెరికా, సౌదీ అరేబియాతో పెట్రో డాలర్ ఒప్పందం కుదుర్చుకొని దాని ద్వారా అన్ని దేశాల పెట్రో కొనుగోలు బిల్లులు డాలర్ల లోనే చెల్లించాలని నిర్దేశించడం తో మిగితా దేశాల కరెన్శికి విలువ తగ్గిపోయింది. చైనా, భారత్ సౌదీ దెశాలు భారీ ఎత్తులో అమెరికా బండ్లలో మదుపు చెసాయి. ప్రపంచ దేశాల ఆర్ధిక లావాదేవీలు డాలర్లలోనే జరుగుతుండడం తో డాలర్లు ప్రపంచానికి రిజర్వ్ కరెన్సీ గా మారాయి. అగ్ర రాజ్యం తమ దేసం లో రక్ష్ణ వ్యయాన్ని పెంచుకుంటూ, మిగితా దేశాలకు భారీగా ఋణాలిస్తూ తమకు వచ్చిన లాభాలతో తమ దేశం లో పరిశ్రమలు నెలకొల్పి అన్ని దేశాలపై అమెరికా పెత్తనం చెలాయస్తోంది. 2018 వ సంవత్సరం లో అనేక దేశాల కరెన్శి విలువ బాగా పడిపోయి ఆయా దేశాలను ఆర్ధిక సంక్షోభం లోకి నెట్టివేసింది. ఉదాహరణకు ఈజిప్ట్ పౌండు 59 శాతం, వెనిజులో బోలివర్ 17 శాతం, అర్జంటైనా ప్రిస్సో 17 శాతం,బ్రిటీషు పౌండు 19 శాతం ,మలేసియా యొక్క రింగిట్ 19 శాతం, రష్యా రూబుల్ 20 శాతం, ఇండోనేషియా రుపాయి 13 శాతం తగ్గిపోయింది.అమెరికా ఎప్పుడు కావలంటే అప్పుడు తన కరెన్సీ అయిన దాలర్ యొక్క విలువను కాపాడుకుంటూ, ఆ దుష్ప్రభావం వలన మిగితా దేశాల కరెన్సీ విలువలు ఏమైపోయినా అది నాకు సంబంధం లేదన్న నియంతృత్వ , స్వార్ధపూరిత ధోరణితో వ్యవహరించడం వలన ప్రపంచ ఆర్ధిక వ్యవస్థ చిన్నా భిన్నం అవడం తో ప్రపంచ దేశాలు డాలర్ ప్రత్యామ్న్యాయ కరెన్సీకి ప్రయత్నాలు మొదలుపెట్టాయి. అగ్ర రాజ్యం ఆధిపత్యం తగ్గించడానికి ఇటీవల చైనా, రష్యా దేశాలు గోల్డ్ స్తాండర్డ్ విధానాం పునరుధరణ ను కుదుర్చుకోవడం ఒక శుభపరిణామం.స్వయం ప్రతిపత్తిగా ఎదిగిన చైనా అగ్ర రాజ్య పెత్తనాన్ని వ్యతిరేకిస్తూ వన్ బెల్ట్ వన్ రొడ్ పధకం కింద తన వద్ద వున్న డాలర్ చరాస్థులను స్థిరాస్థులుగా మార్చుకుంటోంది.ప్రపంచ దేశాలతో తాను చెసే కరెన్సీ లావా దేవీలు తమ దేశ కరెన్సీ అయిన యువాన్ లతోనే చేసే ప్రత్యామ్న్యాయ మార్గాలపై దృష్టి సారించింది.రష్యా నుండి కొనుగోలుచేసే సహజవాయువును యువాన్లతో నే చేసే విధం గా కొన్ని దేశాలను ఒప్పించి తద్వారా తమ దేశ ఆర్ధిక సార్వ భౌమాధిపత్యాన్ని కాపాడుకునే చారిత్రాత్మిక నిర్ణయం తీసుకుంది.

ప్రపంచ దేశాలతో సమానంగా అభివృద్ధి సాధిస్తూ ప్రపంచం లో ఆరవ అతి పెద్ద ఆర్ధిక వ్యవస్థగా రూపుదిద్దుకుంటున్న భారత దెశానికి గత డబ్భై ఏళ్ళ చరిత్రలో ఎన్నడూ లేనంత కనిష్ట స్థాయికి రూపాయి విలువదిగజారిపోవడం పెద్ద ఎదురు దెబ్బ. స్వతంత్ర భారతం లో 19 47 వ సంవత్సరం లో మన రుపాయి విలువ డాలర్ తో సమానం. అయితే 2018 నాటికి రూపాయి విలువ డబ్భయో వంతుకు పడిపోయి మన ఆర్ధిక వ్యవస్థఎంతటి బలహీన పునాదులపై నిర్మింపబడిందో స్పష్టం చేస్తోంది.అమెరికా, టర్కీల మధ్య తాజాగా తలెత్తిన వివాదాల కారణం గా టర్కీ కరెన్సీ అయిన లిరా అంతర్జాతీయ మార్కెట్ లో తీవ్రమైన ఒడిదుడుకులకు లోనవడంఒక బలమైన కారణమని ఆర్ధిక నిపుణులు చెబుతున్నప్పటికీ గత 70 సంవత్సరాల కాలం లో రూపాయి విలువ కొన్ని సంధర్భాలతో తప్పితే పడిపోతూ వస్తొందే తప్ప ఏనడూ పుంజుకున్న దాఖలాలు లేవు.గత ఏదాదిఅక్టోబరులో అమెరికన్ డాలర్ కు మారకం విలువ 61.50 రూపాయలుగా, ఈ ఏడాది ఫిబ్రవరిలో 63.33 రూపాయలుగా వుంది. అప్పటి నుండి క్రమక్రమమంగా పెరుగుతోందే తప్ప మారకం విలువ తగ్గిన సంధర్భాలు బహుస్వల్పం. కొన్ని రోజులు పైసల్లో తగ్గినా మళ్లీ పెరగడమే కానీ దిగువకు వచ్చింది లేదు

భారత దేశం కూడా డాలర్ సంక్షోభాన్ని తట్టుకునే విధం గా 2015 లో రష్యా తో రూపాయితోనే లావాదేవీలు జరిగే విధం గా ఒప్పందం కుదుర్చుకుంది. అలాగే సౌదీ నుండి, ఇరాన్ దేశాల నుండి దిగుమతి చెసుకొనే మందులు, ఆహార పధార్ధాలు ముడి సరుకుల రూపం లో చెల్లించదానికి గట్టి ప్రయత్నాలు, సంప్రదింపులు చెస్తోంది. ప్రపంచం లో ఒక దేశం మొత్తం ఆర్ధిక వ్యవస్థను శాసిస్తు, మిగితా దేశాలు అది ఆడమంటే ఆడడం,పాడమంటే పాడడం అన్న రీతిన వ్యవహరించడం ప్రపంచ ఆర్ధిక వ్యవస్థకు ఏమంత క్షేమకరం కాదు. అమెరికా తన దాలర్ విలువ బలహీన పడినప్పుడల్లా తన మిత్ర దేశలతో కూడి, ఇతర దేశాల అవసరాలను , బలహీనతలను అధారం చెసుకొని తాను బలపడేందుకు ప్రయత్నిస్తోంది. ఈ ధోర్నణి వలనే గతం లో ప్రపంచ వ్యాప్తం గా తీవ్ర ఆర్ధిక మాంద్యం నెలకొన్నప్పుడు అమెరికా త్వరగా కోలుకోగలిగింది కాని ఇప్పటికి ఆర్ధిక సంక్షోభం లో కొట్టుమిట్టాడుతున్న దేశాల వైపుకు కనీసం కన్నెత్తి చూడలేదు. అమెరీకా యొక్క ఈ ఆధిపత్య ధోరణికి ముక్కు తాడు వెయ్యకపోతే అమెరికా ఎప్పటికీ అగ్రరాజ్యం లా ప్రపంచ ఆర్ధిక వ్యవస్థను శాసిస్తునే వుంటుంది. భారత్ ఇప్పటికైనా మేలుకొని ఆర్ధిక స్వాత్రంత్రం సాధించడం కోసం తీవ్రం గా కృషి చెయ్యాలి.

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