రసాయన ఎరువులతో ప్రజల ఆరోగ్యానికి పెను ప్రమాదం

భారత దేశం వ్యవసాయ ప్రధాన దేశం. మన దేశ ఆర్ధికాభివృద్ధిలో వ్యవసాయం ప్రధాన పాత్ర వహిస్తొంది. అసలు ప్రపంచ వ్యాప్తం గా పూర్వం వ్యవసాయం ప్రకృతి పద్ధతులతో మొదలయ్యింది. తర్వాతి కాలం లో అనేక కొత్త విధానాలు, కొత్త పంటల రకాలు,వాటిలో అధిక దిగుబడి నిచ్చే సంకరాలు సాగులోకి వచ్చాయి. పంటలకు వచ్చే తెగుళ్ళ నివారణకు వివిధ రసాయనాల వాడకం మొదలయ్యింది. దానితో ఆగిపోకుండా అధిక దిగుబడి ఆశతో అశాస్త్రీయమైన సేద్య విధానాలను అవలంబిస్తూ రైతులు వాటికి వచ్చే చీడ పీడల నివారణకు ఎరువులను అధిక మోతాదులో వాడడం తో మొదటికే మోసం వచ్చే ప్రమాదం పొంచి వుంది.

ఈ రోజు ఏ ఆహార పధార్ధం తీసుకోవాలన్నా వంద సార్లు ఆలోచించి వినియోగం చేఎసుకోవాల్సిన పరిస్థితి వచ్చింది. భారత్ దేసం లో 2016-17 వ సంవత్సరానికి గాను నాలుగు కోట్ల టన్నుల రసాయన ఎరువులు ఉత్పత్తి అయ్యాయంటే వీటి వినియోగం ఏ స్థాయిలో వుందో మనం ఊహించుకోవచ్చు. ఇవి సరిపోవనట్లు, 88 శాతం మేరకు డ్దై అమ్మోనియా ఫాస్ఫేట్ ( డి ఎ పి) ను కెనడా, రష్యా, అమెరికా, జోర్డాన్, మొరాకో వంటి దేశాల నుండి దిగుమతి చేసుకుంటున్నాం. పంటలకు మోతాదును మించి ఎరువులను వాడడం తో వాటి రసాయనిక అవశేషాలు, ఆహారధాన్యాలు, కూరగాయలు,పండ్లు ఇలా ఒకటేమిటి, మనం రసాయనాలనే తింటున్నామని నిస్స్సందేహం గా చెప్పవచ్చు.దీనితో ఎన్నో రకాల భయంకర, దీర్ఘకాలిక, వైద్య విజ్ఞ్ఞానానికే అంతుచిక్కని ఎన్నో రోగాలు మానవాళిని ఆవహిస్తున్నాయి.సాధారణం గా పంటలకు 4:2:1 నిష్పత్తిలో నత్రజని, భాస్వరం, పొటాష్ పోషకాలను అందించాల్సి వుండగా అత్యధిక దిగుబడి ఆశతో స్వల్పకాలిక ప్రయోజనాలను దృష్టిలో వుంచుకొని వాటిని దేశ వ్యాప్తం గా 8:2:9 నిష్పత్తిలో వాడుతున్నారంటే రసాయన కాలుష్యం జీవ జాతి మనుగడను ఎంతగా కబళిస్తొందో ఇట్టే అర్ధం చేసుకోవచ్చు. రైతులలో ఈ అంశం పై అవగాహనా రాహిత్యం, నిరక్ష్యరాస్యత , ఎరువుల వినియోగాన్ని కట్టడి చేయడం లో ప్రభుత్వాల వైఫల్యం, రైతులకు సరైన మార్గదర్శనం చేసే విధానాలు లోపించడం, వ్యవసాయ రంగానికి సమస్యగా మారింది.పర్యావరణ హిత వ్యవసాయం, భూమిలోని స్థిరత్వానికి, భూమిలో వుండాల్సిన జీవ సమతుల్యాన్ని పెంచుతాయి. కానీ ఈ రోజు వ్యవసాయం లో స్వల్ప కాలిక లాభాల ఆశ పెరిగి ఎడా పెడా రసాయన ద్రావకాలను వుపయోగిస్తుండడం తో భూమిలో అసమతుల్యం ఏర్పడి పంటలకు పోషక లోపాలు ఏర్పడుతున్నాయి. కొండ నాలికి మందేస్తే వున్న నాలిక వూడిన చందం గా వ్యవసాయ భూములలో ఒక లోపం సవరించేందుకు రసాయనాలు వాడితే, అది పూర్తిగా పంట భూముల సారాన్నే నష్టం చేస్తోంది. మన దేశం లో వందకు పైగా ఎనభై వేల మెట్రిక్ టన్నుల సామర్ధ్యం వున్న బయోఫెర్టిలైజర్ల కంపెనీలు వున్నా ఇరవై వేల టన్నుల ఉత్పత్తి మాత్రమే జరగడం ప్రభుత్వాలకు వున్న నిర్లక్ష్య వైఖరికి అద్దం పడుతోంది.

తెలుగు రాష్ట్రాలలో అయితే రసాయన ఎరువుల విస్తృత వినియోగం తో పంట పోలాలలో కార్బన్, జింకు లోపాలతో పంట దిగుబడి మీద దెబ్బ తీస్తొంది. ఈ ద్రావకాల వినియోగం వలన వ్యవసాయ భూములలో సూక్ష్మ పోషక లోపాలు ఏర్పడి వ్యవసాయానికి, ఉద్యాన పంటలకు అడ్దంకిగా మారి పంట దిగుబడి రాక రైతు ఆర్ధికం గా దెబ్బతింటున్నాడు.ఇప్పటికైనా ప్రభుత్వాలు కళ్ళు తెరిచి సేంద్రీయ ఎరువుల పట్ల, పర్యావరణ హిత వ్యవసాయం పట్ల రైతులకు అవగాహన కల్పిస్తే తప్ప విషతుల్య రసాయనాల సంస్కృతికి స్వస్తి పలికే అవకాశం వుండదు.

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